Experimental and analytical study of novel rapid freeze casting technique to fabricate 3D-shaped gelatin nanofibers

Document Type : Original Article


1 Biomaterials Research Group, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran.

2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Nanofibrous scaffolds are often used to reconstruct damaged tissues/organs. Unfortunately the lack of producing three-dimensional (3D) nanofiber results in their restricted applications. Therefore, bulky-shaped gelatin nanofibers were fabricated through novel rapid freeze casting (RFC) technique to simulate extracellular matrix (ECM) and accelerate the regeneration. Formation of 3D-shaped fibers in the range of 200-1000 nm with approximately 98% porosity and significantly improved mechanical stability compared with conventional freeze casting (CFC) technique is one of the strengths of this study even though both RFC and CFC macrostructures are similar. Outcomes proved this novel technique reduced hydrophilicity and controlled biodegradation rate owing to applying a high freezing gradient in order to the production of thin pores. The viability of more than 90% cells compared with control group confirmed the biocompatibility of constructs and supporting cellular proliferation. In brief, novel RFC gelatin nanofibers represented original physicochemical and mechanical features for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

Graphical Abstract

Experimental and analytical study of novel rapid freeze casting technique to fabricate 3D-shaped gelatin nanofibers


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